During the ripening process, the olive changes color - from the initial green to dark purple.
Olives ripen in late summer and are picked in fall-winter. During the ripening process (“envero”, in the Spanish language) olives change color, from green to dark purple. This is when the “lipogenesis” (olive oil appearance in the pulp), occurs. The olive’s ripening degree determines its flavor and ulterior use. Since it is bitter (mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds) it is only eaten after several curing processes but never raw.
There are many olive varieties, both for consumption when they are green and for oil production. The best-known varieties are Arbequina, Frantoio, Leccino, Coralina, Picual, Barnea and Picholine.